Laying down even watercolor washes (flat, graded and variegated)


Practicing washes on good (100% cotton rag) and cheap (student pads made from wood pulp) watercolor paper will really show the difference between the watercolor papers.
1.  Tape the edges of the paper down (9″x12″ or larger) to a piece of larger mat-board or cardboard covered in contact paper (1″ blue painter’s tape will peel off easily).
2.  Using a large flat watercolor brush (1-2″) pre-wet the paper with clean water. (I use the 1.5″ “Black Velvet series” flat wash brush from Silver company through www.
3.  Mix up a large puddle of juicy color (non-granulating pigments are easier initially) on your palette.
4.  When the shine of the water is beginning to disappear, gently drag your loaded large flat brush across the top of the paper and continue stroking down the sheet slightly overlapping the previous stroke of wet color. Load your brush for each stroke if needed. This can be done flat or on a tilted surface (at least 15 degrees).
5.  Tilt paper taped to board at various angles (incl. upright) to distribute the wash, if needed.
6.  Collect any pooling color at the bottom of the paper with a “thirsty” damp brush (or a corner of a paper towel) to prevent back-washes or blooms.

NOTE: Any secondary wash laid down subsequently (after the first is completely dry) is now referred to as a GLAZE


1.  To produce a graded wash, mix up a juicy mix of color in your palette and drag the loaded brush across the top of the dry (or moistened) paper.
2.  Dip brush 1x into clean water and remove excess on side of the container. (this will remove about 15% of the color)
3.  Stroke brush across paper directly below last band, overlapping slightly.
4.  Dip 1x again into water and remove excess water on side of container….repeat until bottom of page is reached.
Alternatively, your initial puddle of color can be diluted by adding water-in even increments (eg. 2 squirts from a water bottle), mixing thoroughly and adding to successive bands with the large flat brush OR you can start with clean water and gradually add even increments of color (eg one corner of flat brush into freshly squeezed watercolor), mixing thoroughly before adding successive strokes.
All these methods can work. Try which one is most comfortable for you.


1.  Make large puddles of similar concentration of 2 or more different colors in your palette.
2.  Load the large flat brush and stroke across the top of the paper with one color.
3.  Without rinsing the brush, pull a little color from the second puddle into the first color and mix. Load this directly below the last stroke, overlapping slightly.
4.  Repeat 3 until the change of color is complete or you reached the bottom of the page.
Alternatively, this effect can be produced by doing 2 separate graded washes, one starting from the top of the paper, drying completely, and then repeating the other color over it from the bottom of the paper up.

Subject matter painted over
a variegated wash

Variegated washes make great sunset scenes and can be painted over with darker colors to create drama. This is also known as an underwash/underpainting or toning the paper.

How to Mix Bright Luminous Secondary Colors.

Mixing secondary hues (colors) from a split primary color wheel (with a warm and cool red, blue and yellow) is the best way to produce the purest (clean), intense (bright) secondary colors. To do this, the primary colors chosen must lean towards the secondary color that is being mixed.

In grade school, we learned the theory that 2 primaries mixed together=secondary colors, that is:
Yellow+ Blue=Green
Red+Blue=Violet or purple

However in reality, when you mix secondary colors, they are sometimes dirty looking and mixing purple often gives something close to brown!!!! Why is that?

The color wheel on the left shows dotted lines; this divides the color wheel into quadrants which are all biased (leaning towards) a particular secondary color. Staying within these quadrant/families assures clean bright secondaries, so when the dotted lines are crossed and quadrants are “contaminated”, the colors can become “sullied” and dull.

For example, mixing luminous violet/purple requires:

  • Warm Blue (Blue leaning towards violet) + cool red (red leaning to the violet) = bright luminous violet/purple. Going outside the dotted lines and mixing cool blue (green bias) and warm red (orange bias) will produce a brown-purple!

Similarly, mixing a luminous clean green requires:

  • cool Yellow (yellow leaning towards green) + cool blue (Blue leaning towards green)= bright clear green (and probably very unnatural looking!) Again going outside the quadrant lines and mixing a warm yellow (leaning to the orange) and warm blue (leaning towards violet) will give an olive green or brownish-green! (which is sullied but closer to the greens appearing in nature). More on mixing greens later!

The theory applies to all the other hues (colors)….

The purest, most intense colors come from combining colors that lean towards the color you are trying to mix. 

This includes tertiary or intermediate colors (which are produced when a primary and secondary color are mixed). eg. red and orange=red orange or orange red.
NOTE: The more colors that are mixed, the duller (greyer and sullied) the combination will become. Try not to mix more than 3 colors in any color mixture to keep colors bright and clean.

Split Primary Palette for Beginner Watercolorists.

Split Primary Palette for Beginners:
I feel it is the responsibility of the artist to use the most permanent watercolor pigments available. I have spent hours researching which pigments make the most sense to have on your palette without worrying that they will change/disappear when exposed to too much day light or fluorescent light. (colors that change are termed “Fugitive” and should not be on your palette. Certain pigments (eg Opera or Opera rose) can disappear-leaving white paper in a little as 6 months in the sun!

Here is the very basic palette (a warm and cool of each primary color) that I recommend:

Common Name      cool/warm    Pigment #         Chemical name               Brands I use    
Winsor Yellow           C                PY154     (Benzimidazalone yellow)                W/N
New Gamboge          W                PY153     (nickel dioxine yellow)                     W/N or DS
Pyrrol Red                 W                PR254     (di-keto pyrrolo pyrrol red)               DS
Permanent Rose  (Quin)   C          PV19       (gamma-quinacridone)                     W/N or DS
French Ultramarine Blue   W        PB29        (sodium aluminum sulfosilicate)       W/N
Phthalo Blue (green shade)   C     PB15:3      (alpha copper phthalocyanine)         W/N or DS

W/N  Winsor Newton
DS     Daniel Smith
H       Holbein

From these basic 6 colors (warm and cool of each primary color) most colors can be mixed which make them a great starting point for beginners in watercolor. A warm and cool is required because perfectly-balanced primary colors are not available as single lightfast pigments. The best place to check for color lightfastness is and “Guide to the Best Watercolor Paints” by Michael Cox or Hilary Page’s book “Guide to watercolor paints”.

Optional colors (but extremely useful) that I recommend include:
Common name                         Pigment #   Chemical name                      Brands I use
Phthalo green (blue shade)          PG7     (chlorinated copper phthalocyanine)         DS or W/N
Permanent Alizarin Crimson     PR N/A+PR206  (Quinacridone mixture)              W/N
Burnt Sienna                                PBr7  (Calcinated natural iron oxide)                     H
Burnt Umber                                PBr7  (Calcinated natural iron/manganese oxide ) H

With these extra colors, it is possible to mix rich deep luminous darks and more neutralized colors (tending towards grey).

NOTE: Until recently, the common names of watercolors have been confusing as they varied between manufacturers for the same pigment and beginners could unknowingly end up buying duplicate paint. Thankfully, paint manufacturers now provide pigment numbers and formulations so brands can be accurately compared. But the common names are still used extensively, and artists eventually will have to learn the new nomenclature (or have it easily available) to prevent ambiguity when shopping for/describing watercolors.

Mixing rich deep luminous darks

  • I do not use any watercolor paint that contains black (eg PBk6 thru 11) as this pigment is mostly soot/carbon and can give a flat dead-looking black.
  • My favorite deep dark mixed with Phthalo Green, blue shade (PG7) and perm. Alizarin Crimson (PR N/A and PR206)-if mixed up thick and juicily can represent close to “a transparent black
  • A mix of PG7 and Quinacridone violet/magenta (PV 19) can be substituted for a cooler black. 
  • All Phthalo colors (PG7, PG36, PB15:1, PB:3) are staining, transparent and have a wide value range (from their lightest lights to their darkest darks) which allows for deep dark color mixing. 
  • Unfortunately, a perfect neutral grey is not commercially available either, but the transparent “black” listed above can be diluted with more water….. but a better method is to mix complementary colors (colors directly across each other on the color wheel). More on complements later.

Took First place at Wellesley Society of Artists, Fall exhibition.

Spectral Angel by Sally Meding

Watercolor, 15×15″ “Spectral Angel”, was awarded first place in the Wellesley Society of Artists Fall exhibition by juror Nan Hass Feldman.
The juror kindly left comments about my painting!
“An exciting abstract image, color-filled, asymmetrical, suggestive of puzzle pieces but executed in a totally original and strong composition.”
I was thrilled as this was the first time I had entered this piece in any show! I sure had fun painting all the small shapes in layers of luminous color!

Painting “En Plein Aire” in Pawtucket, Rhode Island

“Amaryllis”, watercolor 11×14, one of my favorites-sold this weekend while painting en plein aire at Rhode Island Watercolor Society at Slater Park, Pawtucket!

I used Winsor/Newton permanent red wet-into-wet for the edges of the petals as this pigment explodes on the paper and leaves beautiful soft edges!

I grew this triple-flower amaryllis, it bloomed for a long time and begged to be painted!

Vibrant Day lilies inspired a watercolor for Robbin

Day lily for Robbin, 9×12″ cropped to 8×8″ watercolor
by Sally Meding

Just finished this small watercolor that sold before it was half way completed!

The lady who bought me the beautiful flowers (from her garden) to paint wants it for her living room. 
My neighbors daughter was over and we had fun all painting different views of the vase! The day-lilies were very inspiring!

My Watercolor for Massachusetts Horticultural Society (Elm Bank) Exhibition, Wellesley, MA

“Romantic Elm Bank” Watercolor 15×22″
by Sally Meding

Beautiful 182 acre grounds at Elm Bank, Wellesley, MA are perfect for the plein aire artist!

I enjoyed roaming this area to find the sweetest spot to capture the essence of this gorgeous place.

I did not follow the local colors, but enjoyed playing with a pastel palette to create a fairytale romantic mood, as many weddings are held in this serene location.
The giant bonsai weeping spruce with its twisty shape caught my attention immediately!

Join us for Massachusetts Horticultural Society (Elm Bank) Exhibition of local watercolor paintings depicting scenes from around the gardens on Sept 22nd 8.30am-6pm. (900 Washington St, Wellesley, MA)

Sold! and a requested commission to go with it!

“Sugar Maples in Morning mist”
watercolor, 15×22″ by
Sally Meding

SOLD! “Morning mist” 15×22″ (Image size) watercolor. Buyer would like a companion to go with it, so I am working on that commission after I finish my current piece!

I loved creating this watercolor, lots of wet-into-wet technique, with spatter, rock salt crystals and stippling!